Coal is a combustible, sedimentary, natural rock, which is composed basically of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It is shaped from ancient vegetation, which has been laid down and then compressed and warmed over millions of a long time to create coal seams. Coal is essential for steel and cement production, and some industrial activities.

Enertus AG trades metallurgical coal via long term supply contracts from the major coal producing countries, and are building a solid base of end users by offering innovative and collaborative solutions to meet our clients’ needs including shipping, logistics and finance.


Anthracite is considered the rarest and the most highly prized and mature type of coal. It makes up just 1% of total global coal reserves, and has a higher carbon content than the other three types of this material. This means that, in addition to domestic applications, anthracite is also suitable for specific industrial uses, as it can generate more heat and produces less waste.

Metallurgical Coal

Metallurgical coal, also known as coking coal, is a fuel that is suitable for producing high-quality blast furnace coke through carbonization. Metallurgical coal is therefore mainly used for following purposes:

  • to produce a traditional coke, an artificial coal obtained as a residue from the dry distillation of hard coal at a high temperature;
  • to use in pulverized coal injection, a technique that stems from research (dating back to 1920) into alternative fuels that allows ground-up coal to be used in traditional furnaces;
  • to produce a metallurgical coke, a material obtained through the destructive distillation of various blends of bituminous coal.

Metallurgical Coke

Metallurgical coke (metcoke) is a key material for manufacturing of iron and steel due to a stable level of heat generated from its combustion and its low, or even non-existent, emissions of polluting smoke.

Metcoke therefore has a much lower environmental impact than other types of fuel, and the rapid industrialization in emerging economies, as well as the growth in steel production, should support the development of coke trading at a global level. The leading markets for metallurgical coke are China, India, and Japan.

Steam Coal

Steam coal is a mid-quality coal, halfway between anthracite and bituminous coal. Also known as thermal coal, this material is mostly used for electricity production through steam generation.

Although steam coal production has fallen in OECD countries since the 2000s, the demand for this material is still extremely high. Indeed, in 2018 global steam coal exports were more than double the level they were in 2000, with China, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea the fuel’s main importers.

There are currently various countries producing it across the world. Although it is no longer a major exporter of thermal coal, the United States has an enormous production capacity, meaning it has the potential to become a major player in the market again when necessary. In Poland and Russia, production and exports of coal are falling, and the same is true in Germany and the rest of western Europe. At the same time, the main suppliers of the fuel, including Australia and South Africa, have further increased their production rate and exports. The newer arrivals on the market, like Indonesia, which began in the 1980s, and Colombia and Venezuela, which started production in the 1990s, are now outpacing the other countries.